Funded Projects

BEHIND IRON CURTAINS BIC 70, funded by the European Commission, Europe for Citizens programme – Stand 1 European Remembrance. Lead partner: Nemzeti Emlékezet Bizottságának Hivatala Budapest (Hungary). Partners: Institute of Sociology (Romania), Spoleczna Akademia Nauk (Poland), Post Bellum (Czech Republic). Period of implementation: August 2015 – December 2016.
The project is promoting the history of Europe after 70 years of WWII, and fostering a sense of ownership for how the European Union develops. BIC70 Project focuses on the way citizens (students, researchers, experts, educators, youth etc) can participate and deepen their knowledge about the common European history and values. The project emphasizes the contrast of the evolving dictatorship of the party state and its crimes against the democratic system of the EU nowadays and intends to make the citizens aware over the opportunities for societal and intercultural engagement at EU level. It contains a transnational research dimension and a non-formal educational program about the post war period of Eastern and Central Europe, with a focus on how the totalitarian regime in this region developed.

PRISONERS’ RIGHTS. ROMANIA IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT, grant funded by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research, CNCS-UEFISCDI, Period of implementation: October 2015 – September 2017. Project manager: dr. Cristina Dâmboeanu, SERL.
The research project focuses on prisoners’ rights in Romania, a post-communist country that begun only after 1990, when the totalitarian state has collapsed, to incorporate the rhetoric of human rights on its political and legal agendas. More specifically, the project aims to identify prisoners and prison staff perceptions on types of inmates’ rights most commonly violated in Romanian prisons, the contexts in which these violations occur, as well as the costs of these violations for prisoners and prison management. Conducted from a multi-disciplinary perspective, that combines sociological, legal, and penological approaches, the research project will move beyond the simple debate of whether the prisoners’ rights are respected or not in Romania towards more thorough insights on the process of “norms’ socialization” (Risse and Sikkink, 1999).

EFFECTS OF IMPRISONMENT ON ROMANIAN OFFENDERS’ LIVES, funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, UEFISCDI-CNCS. Period of implementation: 2013-2015. Project manager: dr. Cristina Dâmboeanu, SERL.
Unlike the US and most of the Western European countries, where researchers have shown a major interest in studying imprisonment and its intended and unintended consequences, in Romania, this topic is very poorly addressed in the academic literature. Few studies have focused on prison life, prison adaptation, inmate socialization and subculture and even fewer have been devoted to analyzing the long-term effects of confinement. The purpose of this postdoctoral research project is precisely to examine the influences that incarceration exerts on inmates’ criminal behavior and other major life domains and to develop a set of policy recommendations to reduce the negative potential of confinement. In line with the international literature on prison effects, the main objectives of the research are to identify to what extent and what is the nature of the prison impact on inmates’ lives, what life-domains are more affected by incarceration and what mechanisms put in motion the prison influences.

EXPECTATION OF EUROPE, AND AFTER? TRANSFORMATION OF JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSE IN EUROPEAN ROMANIA, supported by CNCSIS-UEFISCSU (July 2010-July 2012). Project number PN II-RU PD_225/2010.Project manager: dr. Valentina Pricopie, SERL.
Expectation of Europe, and after? – an essay of redefinition of the discursive identity of the political and media actors of the public sphere in European Romania, that aims to evaluate the implications of the building of temporality of expectation of Europe on the structure of nowadays discourses. After January 1, 2007, other internal and European political events are temporizing the discursive representation of actuality. This study allows us on one side to reconsider the hypothesis of our doctoral thesis, oriented on the construction of the political and media event – the European integration of Romania – and on the other a better delimitation of the structural transformations of discourses, noticed in the original political and cultural context. Moreover, we consider that, in the virtue of this continuity of the study oriented on the – European – transformation of Romanian discourse we are beginning from a solid theoretical and empirical basis that will allow us to frame the dialectic of the European Romanian discourse.

Elevated body mass in National Football League players linked to cognitive impairment and decreased prefrontal cortex and temporal pole activityTop of pageAbstractObesity is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disease and has been shown to adversely affect cognitive function. Professional athletes who participate in sports, which expose them to repetitive concussions, may be at heightened risk for cognitive impairment. Here, we investigated the effects of body mass as measured by waist to height ratio (WHtR) on regional cerebral blood flow using single photon emission computed tomography imaging in 38 healthy weight (WHtR mean 49.34 age 58 and 38 overweight (WHtR mean 58.7 age 58 retired National Football League football players. After matching for Chandler Catanzarojersey age and position, we used a two sample t test to determine the differences in Authenitc red Deone Bucannon jersey blood flow in healthy versus overweight subjects. Statistical parametric mapping revealed a higher WHtR ratio is associated with decreased blood Authenitc Kids Deone Bucannon jersey flow in Brodmann areas 8, 9 and 10, brain regions involved in attention, reasoning and executive function (P family wise error) along with deficits in the temporal pole. Moreover, overweight athletes had significant decrease in attention (P general cognitive proficiency (P Microcog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning) and memory (P Mild Cognitive Impairment Screen). The association between elevated WHtR percentage and decreased blood flow in the prefrontal cortex and temporal pole may be correlated with the decreased performance on tests of attention and memory. These findings suggest that a weight management program may be critical to the health of athletes who have been exposed to mild brain trauma during Authenitc Frostee Rucker jersey their careers.

Keywords: body mass index (BMI); cognition; prefrontal cortex; single photon computed tomography (SPECT); temporal pole; waist to height ratio (WHtR)

Top of pageIntroductionObesity is a growing epidemic in youth,1 collegiate2 and professional football players,3 thus, potentially escalating the risk for cognitive impairment in a group that is already at risk due to repetitive subconcussive and concussive brain trauma. Authenitc Womens Bobby Massie jersey Recent studies have highlighted the impairments in executive cognitive function in overweight healthy adults,4 but no study to date has investigated the effects of weight on brain function in professional athletes. This is a unique population of strength trained individuals who are required to have a higher body mass for competitive purposes. Body mass index was found not to be a valid indicator of overweight and obesity in a collegiate football population,5 suggesting that the waist to height ratio (WHtR) is a more appropriate assessment of the healthy weight of an amateur or professional athlete. We have observed that retired football players are susceptible to weight gain.6 Therefore, it is important to evaluate if the combination of weight gain and brain trauma in football players has an additive negative effect on brain function.

Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, we have previously demonstrated significant global decreases in blood flow in a study of 100 retired professional National Football League (NFL) football players.7 In addition, we recently found a decrease in blood flow in the prefrontal cortex of normal, healthy individuals who have an elevated body mass.8 On the basis of our previous findings, we hypothesized that similar blood flow deficits and cognitive deficits are present in a group of overweight athletes who have been exposed to repetitive subconcussive or concussive collisions as compared with normal weight players.

To test our hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 38 normal weight and 38 overweight retired NFL players who had previously visited our clinic to participate in a brain trauma study. We utilized SPECT imaging as a measure of blood flow, and we administered the Microcog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning (MACF) and Mild Cognitive Impairment Screen (MCIS) Authenitc Mens John Abraham jersey to assess mental performance and attention. We hypothesized an Elite Chandler Authenitc Kids John Abraham jersey Catanzaro jersey inverse correlation between WHtR percentage and scores on attention, reasoning and general cognitive function in addition to significant deficits in blood flow in the prefrontal cortex.

Top of pageMaterials and methodsSubjectsWe recruited a total of 100 active and retired players, representing 27 teams and all positions to participate in a study measuring the impact of playing professional American football on long term brain function7 (see Table 1 for demographics). Players were recruited from retired NFL Players Association meetings and by participants informing other players about the study. Of these 100 subjects, 76 were participants in this study, as we were able to attain their waist sizes. Each player met our inclusion criteria of being on an active NFL roster for a minimum of 3 years. We excluded subjects who could not cease taking psychoactive medications (recreational or otherwise) for an appropriate washout period before scanning. In all, 12 of the participants had a prior or current history of psychoactive medication use. All subjects received an explanation of the research study and gave written informed consent in accordance with an Institutional Review Board approved protocol. Weight and height were obtained on all participants and a WHtR was calculated by dividing the waist circumference in inches by height in inches.

Neuropsychological examsAs part of the evaluation the MACF was administered. This exam measures the following nine parameters: general cognitive functioning, general cognitive proficiency, information processing speed, information processing accuracy, attention, reasoning, memory, spatial processing and reaction time. The MACF scores were compared with its own standardized sample (n chosen to be representative to the US population of adults with regard to education, gender and ethnicity between the ages of 18 and 89. Participants were also given the MCIS,9 a screening tool found to be reliable in distinguishing mild cognitive impairment from normal.10

SPECT scansIn addition, each subject underwent high resolution brain SPECT imaging to measure rCBF. Each subject received an age dose of Technetium 99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (Tc 99m HMPAO) intravenously. Subjects were injected in normal lighting while they performed the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test II. The radiopharmaceutical was injected 3 after starting the 15 min test. All subjects completed the task. Subjects were then Youth Deone Bucannon jersey scanned 30 later using a high resolution Picker Prism 3000 triple headed gamma camera (Picker Int. All images were reconstructed and resliced using an oblique reformatting program, according to anterior commissure line so that the final images were similarly aligned for analysis.

Image analysisDifferences in HMPAO uptake were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software (Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London, UK) implemented on the Matlab platform (Math Works, Sherborn, MA, USA). Statistical parametric maps (SPMs) are spatially extended statistical processes that are constructed to test hypotheses about regionally specific effects in neuroimaging data. SPM combines the general linear model and the theory of Gaussian random fields to make statistical inferences about regional effects.11 The images were spatially normalized using a 12 parameter affine transformation followed by non linear deformations12 to minimize the residual sum of squares between each scan and a reference or template image conforming to the standard space defined by the Montreal Neurological Mens John Abraham jersey Institute template. The original image matrix obtained at 128 128 29 with voxel sizes of 2.16 2.16 6.48 were transformed and resliced to a 79 95 68 matrix with voxel sizes of 2 2 2 consistent with the Montreal Neurological Institute template. The normalized images were smoothed using an 8 mm full width half Elite red Deone Bucannon jersey maximum isotropic Gaussian kernel.

Statistical analysisSPECT scans from age and position Authenitc Womens Jonathan Cooper jersey matched normal weight players were compared with overweight retired NFL Authenitc Kids Frostee Rucker jersey players using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) with t contrast modeling. The linear relationship between WHtR and blood flow was evaluated using the SPM multiple regression model. The differences in general cognitive function, general cognitive proficiency, reasoning, attention and memory were evaluated using SPSS statistical software for Windows (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) and P was Authenitc Deone Bucannon jersey considered statistically significant.

Top of pageResultsElevated WHtR decreases cognitive performance and rCBFAverage WHtR in our overweight group was 58.7 (range 53 and in our healthy weight group was 49.34 (range 41.03 with the means being statistically different (t (2,74) P Those with a WHtR percentage under 53 were categorized as healthy weight. We matched players by age and position based on findings from our previous work with this NFL group which demonstrated a significant relationship between position and cognitive function.7

Initially, we examined results of the general cognitive proficiency and the general cognitive function as an assessment of cognition in those with increased WHtR using the MACF. A between group ANOVA demonstrated decreases in general cognitive proficiency (P and general cognitive function (P as a main effect. The decrease in general cognitive proficiency remained significant after Bonferroni correction for the two comparisons (P To discern which factors contributed to decreased general cognitive proficiency, we evaluated attention, memory, reasoning, information processing speed, and information processing accuracy between the two groups. These variables were previously demonstrated to be Mens Bobby Massie jersey areas of deficit as well as sensitive to improvement in our previous study.6 Consistent with the decrease in general cognitive proficiency, information processing accuracy was significantly decreased (P but not information processing speed; general cognitive proficiency is more sensitive to processing accuracy than speed. Of the three underlying domains that contribute to an overall decrease in cognitive proficiency, we found decreases in reasoning (P and attention Elite Womens Jonathan Cooper jersey (P but not memory in those with elevated WHtR using the MCAF. We then refined our analysis to include regions associated with focus, impulsivity and attention (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 10, 11 and 44 ) based on previous data demonstrating elevated body mass index results in decreased executive function4, 13 metabolic activity14 and blood flow8 in the prefrontal cortex. This analysis emphasized the regions of significant decreases were specific to Brodmann areas 8, 9 and 10 in the elevated WHtR group at P FWE. Figure 2 illustrates the three dimensional cortical representation of these brain regions and Table 2 provides the regional areas of significant decrease with the largest cluster size as identified through SPM and defined by the Automated Anatomical Labeling Atlas. These areas include the left and right superior and Elite red John Abraham jersey middle frontal gyrus. No significant increases were observed. Cortical surface views showing significant hypoperfusion in NFL players with elevated WHtR (n compared with those who have a normal WHtR (n Regions showing the most hypoperfusion include the bilateral frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, and cerebellum. The statistical threshold was set at P 0.001. Significant decreases are in blue. No increases were observed. Significant decreases are in blue. No increases were observed. Furthermore, a plot of the regression slope of region 1 (left superior temporal pole and left frontal medial orbital cortex) demonstrates a negative correlation between WHtR and blood flow at P FWE (Figures 4 and 5). This suggests that as body Elite red John Abraham jersey mass increases, the blood flow to both temporal pole and prefrontal cortex decreases. Following a regression analysis of rCBF to WHtR, slices from coronal, sagittal and transverse sections show areas of significant hypometabolism: coronal, 035: right superior frontal cortex; right superior orbital frontal cortex; left middle frontal cortex; left Elite Frostee Rucker jersey superior medial frontal cortex; 045: right superior frontal cortex; left superior frontal cortex; left middle frontal cortex; 053: right superior frontal cortex; left precentral; left temporal pole; left medial inferior orbital frontal cortex; 061: right inferior orbital frontal cortex; left precentral; left temporal pole; left insula; left medial orbital Authenitc Mens Jonathan Cooper jersey frontal cortex; 079: left rolandic operculum ;left inferior temporal; right superior temporal pole. Sagittal, 058: right frontal inferior orbit; right putamen ; right superior temporal pole; right insula; 072: right mid frontal cortex right superior frontal cortex; 098: left medial orbital frontal cortex; left superior medial frontal cortex ;left medial orbital frontal cortex; 118: left mid frontal cortex; left superior frontal cortex; left temporal pole; 136: left precentral; left rolandic operculum ; left inferior temporal cortex; left superior temporal pole. Transverse; 059: right frontal superior cortex; left mid frontal cortex; 069: left superior frontal cortex; left rolandic operculum; 083: right mid frontal cortex; left mid frontal cortex; 109: right superior orbital cortex; left medial orbital frontal cortex; left temporal pole; left rolandic operculum; 117: right superior orbital frontal cortex, left medial orbital frontal cortex; left temporal pole, right superior temporal pole.Elevated body mass in National Football League players linked to cognitive impairment and decreased prefrontal cortex and temporal pole activityTop of pageAbstractObesity is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disease and has been shown to adversely affect cognitive function. Professional athletes who participate in sports, which expose them to repetitive concussions, may be at heightened risk for cognitive impairment. Here, we investigated the effects of body mass as measured by waist to height ratio (WHtR) on regional cerebral blood flow using single photon emission computed tomography imaging in 38 healthy weight (WHtR mean 49.34 age 58 and 38 overweight (WHtR mean 58.7 age 58 retired National Football League football players. After matching for age and position, we used a two sample t test to determine the differences in blood flow in healthy versus overweight subjects. Statistical parametric mapping revealed a higher WHtR ratio is associated with decreased blood flow in Brodmann areas 8, 9 and 10, brain regions involved in attention, reasoning and executive function (P family wise error) along with deficits in the temporal pole. Moreover, overweight athletes had significant decrease in attention (P general cognitive proficiency (P Microcog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning) and memory (P Mild Cognitive Impairment Screen). The association between elevated WHtR percentage and decreased blood flow in the prefrontal cortex and temporal pole may be correlated with the decreased performance on tests of attention and memory. These findings suggest that a weight management program may be critical to the health of athletes who have Elite Mens Chandler Catanzarojersey been exposed to mild brain trauma during their careers.

Keywords: body mass index (BMI); cognition; prefrontal cortex; single photon computed tomography (SPECT); temporal pole; waist to height ratio (WHtR)

Top of pageIntroductionObesity is a growing epidemic in youth,1 collegiate2 and professional football players,3 thus, potentially escalating the risk for cognitive impairment in a group that is already at risk due to repetitive subconcussive and concussive brain trauma. Recent studies have highlighted the impairments in executive cognitive function in overweight healthy adults,4 but no study to date has investigated the effects of weight on brain function in professional athletes. This is a unique population of strength trained individuals who are required to have a higher body mass for competitive purposes. Body mass index was found not to be a valid indicator of overweight and obesity in a collegiate football population,5 suggesting that the waist Kids Deone Bucannon jersey to height ratio (WHtR) is a more appropriate assessment of the healthy weight of an amateur or professional athlete. We have observed that retired football players are susceptible to weight gain.6 Therefore, it is important to evaluate if the combination of weight gain and brain trauma in football players has an additive negative effect on brain function.

Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, we have previously demonstrated significant global decreases in blood flow in a study of 100 retired professional National Football League (NFL) football players.7 In addition, we recently found a decrease in blood flow in the prefrontal cortex of normal, healthy individuals who have an elevated body mass.8 On the basis of our previous Elite Kids Bobby Massie jersey findings, we hypothesized that similar blood flow deficits and cognitive deficits are present in a group of overweight athletes who have been exposed to repetitive subconcussive or concussive collisions Elite Mens Jonathan Cooper jersey as compared with normal weight players.

To test our hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 38 normal weight and 38 overweight retired NFL players who had previously visited our clinic to participate in a brain trauma study. We utilized SPECT imaging as a measure of blood flow, and we administered the Microcog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning Elite Mens John Abraham jersey (MACF) and Mild Cognitive Impairment Screen (MCIS) to assess mental performance and attention. We hypothesized an inverse correlation between WHtR percentage and scores on attention, reasoning and general cognitive function in addition to significant deficits in blood flow in the prefrontal cortex.

Top of pageMaterials and methodsSubjectsWe recruited a total of 100 active and retired players, representing 27 teams and all positions to participate in a study measuring the impact of playing professional American football on long term brain function7 (see Table 1 for demographics). Players were recruited from retired NFL Players Association meetings and by participants informing other players about the study. Of these 100 subjects, 76 were participants in this study, as we were able to attain their waist sizes. Each player met our inclusion criteria of being on an active NFL roster for a minimum of 3 years. We excluded subjects who could not cease taking psychoactive medications (recreational or otherwise) for an appropriate washout period before scanning. In all, 12 of the participants had a prior or current history of psychoactive medication use. All subjects received an explanation of the research study and gave written informed consent in accordance with an Institutional Review Board approved protocol. Weight and height were obtained on all participants and a WHtR was calculated by dividing the waist circumference in inches by height in inches.

Neuropsychological examsAs part of the evaluation the MACF was administered. This exam measures the following nine parameters: general cognitive functioning, general cognitive proficiency, information processing speed, information processing accuracy, attention, reasoning, memory, spatial processing and reaction time. The MACF scores were compared with its own standardized sample (n chosen to be representative to the US population of adults with regard to education, gender and ethnicity between the ages of 18 and 89. Participants were also given the MCIS,9 a screening tool found to be reliable in distinguishing mild cognitive impairment from normal.10

SPECT scansIn addition, each subject underwent high resolution brain SPECT imaging to measure rCBF. Each subject received an age dose of Technetium 99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (Tc 99m HMPAO) intravenously. Subjects were injected in normal lighting while they performed Jonathan Cooper jersey the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test II. The radiopharmaceutical was injected 3 after starting the 15 min test. All subjects completed the task. Subjects were then scanned 30 later using a high resolution Picker Prism 3000 triple headed gamma camera (Picker Int. All images were reconstructed and resliced using an oblique reformatting program, according to anterior commissure line so Elite John Abraham jersey that the final images were similarly aligned for analysis.

Image analysisDifferences in HMPAO uptake Elite Womens Deone Bucannon jersey were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping Mens Deone Bucannon jersey 8 software (Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London, UK) implemented on Authenitc Kids Chandler Catanzarojersey the Matlab platform (Math Works, Sherborn, MA, USA). Statistical parametric maps (SPMs) are spatially extended statistical processes that are constructed to test hypotheses about regionally specific effects in neuroimaging data. SPM combines the general linear model and the theory of Gaussian random fields to make statistical inferences about regional effects.11 The images were spatially normalized using a 12 Elite Mens John Abraham jersey parameter affine transformation followed by non linear deformations12 to minimize the residual sum of squares between each scan and a reference or template image conforming to the standard space defined by the Montreal Neurological Institute template. The original image matrix obtained at 128 128 29 with voxel sizes of 2.16 2.16 6.48 were transformed and resliced to a 79 95 68 matrix with voxel sizes of 2 2 2 consistent with the Montreal Neurological Institute template. The normalized images were smoothed using an 8 mm full width half maximum isotropic Gaussian kernel.

Statistical analysisSPECT scans from age and position matched normal weight players were compared with overweight retired NFL players using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) with t contrast modeling. The linear relationship between WHtR and blood flow was evaluated using the SPM multiple regression model. The differences in general cognitive function, general cognitive proficiency, reasoning, attention and memory were evaluated using SPSS statistical software for Elite Mens Frostee Rucker jersey Windows (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) and P was considered statistically significant.

Top of pageResultsElevated WHtR decreases cognitive performance and rCBFAverage WHtR in our overweight Authenitc red Frostee Rucker jersey group was 58.7 (range 53 and in our healthy weight group was 49.34 (range 41.03 with the means being statistically different (t (2,74) P Those with a WHtR percentage under 53 were categorized as healthy weight. We matched players by age and position based on findings from our previous work with this NFL group which demonstrated a significant relationship between position and cognitive function.7

Initially, we examined results of the general cognitive proficiency and the general cognitive function as an assessment of cognition in those with increased WHtR using the MACF. A between group ANOVA demonstrated decreases in general cognitive proficiency (P and general cognitive function (P as a main effect. The decrease in general cognitive proficiency remained significant after Bonferroni correction for the two comparisons (P To discern which factors contributed to decreased general cognitive proficiency, we evaluated attention, memory, reasoning, information processing speed, and information processing accuracy between the two groups. These variables were previously demonstrated to be areas of deficit as well as sensitive to improvement in our previous study.6 Consistent with the decrease in general cognitive proficiency, information processing accuracy was significantly decreased (P but not information processing speed; general cognitive proficiency is more sensitive to processing accuracy than speed. Of the three underlying domains that contribute to an overall decrease in cognitive proficiency, we found decreases in reasoning (P and attention (P but not Authenitc Youth Deone Bucannon jersey memory in those with elevated WHtR using the MCAF. We then refined our analysis to include regions associated with focus, impulsivity and attention (Brodmann areas 8, 9, Elite Kids Bobby Massie jersey 10, 11 and 44 ) based on previous data demonstrating elevated body mass index results in decreased executive function4, 13 metabolic activity14 and blood flow8 in the prefrontal cortex. This analysis emphasized the regions of significant decreases were specific to Brodmann areas 8, 9 and 10 in the elevated WHtR group at P FWE. Figure 2 illustrates the three dimensional cortical representation of these brain regions and Table 2 provides the regional areas of significant decrease with the largest cluster size as identified through SPM and defined by the Automated Anatomical Labeling Atlas. These areas include the left and right superior and middle frontal gyrus. No significant increases were observed. Cortical surface Elite red Jonathan Cooper jersey views showing significant hypoperfusion in NFL players with elevated WHtR (n compared with those who have a normal WHtR (n Regions showing the most hypoperfusion include the bilateral frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, and cerebellum. The statistical threshold was set at P 0.001. Significant decreases are in blue. No increases were observed. Significant decreases are in blue. Authenitc Womens John Abraham jersey No increases were observed. Furthermore, a plot of the regression slope of region 1 (left superior temporal pole and left frontal medial orbital cortex) demonstrates a negative correlation between WHtR and blood flow at P FWE (Figures 4 and 5). This suggests that as body mass increases, the blood flow to Authenitc Kids Chandler Catanzarojersey both temporal pole and prefrontal cortex decreases. Following a regression analysis of rCBF to WHtR, slices from coronal, sagittal and transverse sections show areas of significant hypometabolism: coronal, 035: right superior frontal cortex; right superior orbital frontal cortex; left middle frontal cortex; left superior medial frontal cortex; 045: right superior frontal cortex; left superior frontal cortex; Elite Youth Deone Bucannon jersey left middle frontal cortex; 053: right superior frontal cortex; left precentral; left temporal pole; left medial inferior orbital frontal cortex; 061: right inferior orbital frontal cortex; left precentral; left temporal pole; left insula; left medial orbital frontal cortex; 079: left rolandic operculum ;left inferior temporal; right superior temporal pole. Sagittal, 058: right frontal inferior orbit; right putamen ; right superior temporal pole; right insula; 072: right mid frontal cortex right superior frontal cortex; 098: left medial orbital frontal cortex; left superior medial frontal cortex ;left medial orbital frontal cortex; 118: left mid frontal cortex; left superior frontal cortex; left temporal pole; 136: left precentral; left rolandic operculum ; left inferior temporal cortex; left superior temporal pole. Transverse; 059: right frontal superior cortex; left mid frontal cortex; 069: left superior frontal cortex; left rolandic operculum; 083: right mid frontal cortex; left mid frontal cortex; 109: right superior orbital cortex; left medial orbital frontal cortex; left temporal pole; left rolandic operculum; 117: right superior orbital frontal cortex, left medial orbital Womens Deone Bucannon jersey frontal cortex; left temporal pole, right superior temporal pole.

After the horrific video of Ray Rice punching his fiance and dragging her limp body out of an elevator was released, domestic violence is back in the spotlight for the NFL. As of Elite Mens C.J.Mosley jersey 2012, 21 teams had a player on its roster who had faced domestic violence or assault charges. In the past month, the NFL has been a hot bed of criminal behavior.

The only way to eliminate the barbaric off Authenitc Haloti Ngata jersey field behavior in the NFL is to shift the culture. You become what you practice. If players are treated like animals or objects, that’s what they become. Yoga is the most Authenitc Blue Dan Orlovsky jersey efficient method to change the values in a league that desperately needs transformation.

In June 2013, Chris Ballard, the director of player personnel for the Kansas City Chiefs, delivered a harsh message to recent draft picks. “Most of you will not be in this league three years from now,” he said, according to ESPN. “Nobody cares about your problems. The fans don’t care. The media doesn’t care. And ownership doesn’t care. They Elite Womens C.J.Mosley jersey care about results.”

He said this just Kids Deandre Levy jersey seven months after a Kansas City player, Jovan Belcher, shot his girlfriend nine times, then killed himself in the Kids George Johnson jersey team’s parking lot.

It’s this brutal treatment that produces players who act violently. Sports are meant to be competitive. However, players who have off the field problems could learn to be peaceful without diminishing their athletic performance. Elite Blue Barry Sanders jersey With the support of yoga, teams could change their tone to be more positive. Yoga students practice seeing the good first. Imagine coaches who actually care about their players and build up their confidence rather Authenitc Youth Dan Orlovsky jersey than tear them down.

The Seattle Seahawks are doing just that. Pete Carroll, head coach for the Seattle Seahawks, has his team practice meditation and holds mandatory yoga sessions. As he’s said in previous interviews: “I wanted to find Authenitc White Barry Sanders jersey out if we went to the NFL and really took care of guys, really cared about each and every individual, what would happen?”

Last year, Carroll’s Elite White Barry Sanders jersey Seahawks didn’t just win the Super Bowl. They destroyed the Denver Broncos 43 to 8.

[Read: Men: How to Crush Any Workout and Win More With Yoga.]Right now, football players are not willing to reach out for help when they’re suffering. The NFL is not conducive to a healthy self esteem. Many feel alone, and much has been said about the large number of suicides.

“The four years I played pro football were some of the most horrendous of my life,” Jimmy Stewart, a licensed family therapist and former defensive back with the Saints and Lions, told ESPN. “I cried alone. I was Elite Kids Deandre Levy jersey frightened. I badly needed somebody to talk to, and I know so many guys today who feel the same way.”

Yoga is the practice of becoming honest with yourself and others from being fierce without being abusive, to the awareness of your breath Authenitc Barry Sanders jersey and how you feel. When a team buys into these ideals, lines of communication will open. Over time, players who struggle to have a difficult conversation about their problems will open up.

Proactive coaches who talk with players promote results both on and off the field. “If I Authenitc White Deandre Levy jersey go ballistic on a guy because he dropped his outside hand or missed an underneath stunt, who is wrong? I am,” Tom Cable, the Elite Mens C.J.Mosley jersey Seahawks’ assistant coach, has said. “I’m attacking his self Authenitc Blue Barry Sanders jersey confidence and he’s learning that if he screws up, he’s going to Elite Mens Deandre Levy jersey get yelled at. If you make a mistake here, it’s going to get fixed.”

[Read: 9 Qualities of Great Yoga Teachers.]

Reactive to Responsive

Athletes are trained to react. In the heat of the moment, they don’t have time to over think their next move. If you just default to your knee jerk Authenitc Barry Sanders jersey reaction in real life situations, you’ll likely do something you regret. Yoga trains your mind to pause, so you can learn to force yourself to stop and breathe. In yoga, there are crucial moments where the class becomes so challenging that students want to run for the door and quit. It’s right at that mental edge where a yoga practice is most beneficial. You want to always practice at that precipice, and pause and navigate your emotions skillfully rather than impulsively. In a league that is hypercritical Youth Haloti Ngata jersey and always demanding players perform, a yoga practice can help athletes think positively. I have students in yoga class achieve a level of health they never imagined possible just thanks to encouragement. If players had that kind of support, they would be well equipped with the courage to make decisions from a positive mindset.

[Read: 10 Tips for Practicing Yoga at Home.]Yoga is a practice of visualizing greatness to see yourself as the positive change you want to facilitate. Students visualize themselves in a pose and take logical steps toward achieving that shape. This empowers them to control their Elite Deandre Authenitc Mens George Johnson jersey Levy jersey mind and change their behavior appropriately. They learn they have a choice, and this realization leads to better behavior off the mat.

“We do imagery work and talk about having that innovative mindset of being special,” quarterback Russell Wilson has said. “We talk about being in the moment and increasing chaos throughout practice, so when I go into the game, everything is relaxed.”

[Read: 5 Yoga Poses You Can Do on an Airplane.]Intentions and constructive thinking matter. However, they’re only part of the equation for positive change. Unless you put your intentions into action, nothing gets accomplished. What you do matters. What you don’t do matters. In yoga, you learn to be completely honest with yourself and responsible for your choices. You make decisions to take a step back or advance in a pose based on clear mental and physical landmarks. Through this process of self assessment, you learn about yourself and your tenacious tendencies whether it’s how you handle yourself in a relationship or the inclination to misalign in a yoga pose. With practice, you learn to manage your habits accordingly. In this way, misalignments can be viewed more positively, as a gift, as what helps keeps you honest.

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